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Islam: God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

Table of Contents  

I. Introduction: Basic Information   

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction    

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan    

3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity    

4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an   

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth   

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise  

7. Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?    

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings   

9. Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective  

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an    

II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure  

1. Islamic Proclamation of Faith  

2. Performing Islamic Prayers  

3. Giving Zakat, Charity, The Third Islamic Duty  

4. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims  

5. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam

III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar  

1. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran    

2. Angels  

3. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran   

4. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran

5. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran  

6. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran    

7. Muhammed in the Holy Quran  

8. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj  

9. The Last Day, The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment

10. God's Precise Measurement and His Just Decree, Al-Qadar Wal Qadha

IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in What We Say and What We Do  

1.  Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran

2. The La (No) Commands  

3. The Imperative Commands  

***

Articles with Islamic Perspective:

Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective

"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings
 

Are Muslim women second-class citizens  

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010

Links to Islamic Topics 2007

Links to Islamic topics 2006

Links to Islamic topics 2005

Links to Islamic topics 2004

Links to Islamic topics, 2003

2002 Links to Islamic topics

 

 

Islam:

God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

12

Performing Islamic Prayers

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

Updated on the 17th of Ramadhan, 1440 - 22nd of May, 2019

***

 1440 2019

***

 

 

I seek refuge with Allah from the Stoned Shaytan (Satan)

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

***

A Muslim is required to perform five prayers everyday, following the teachings of the Prophet Muhammed, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (pbbuh), who received the command for this 'Ibada (way of worshipping Allah) when he met with Allah (God), praise to Him, above the seventh heaven. [1] The angel Jibreel (Gabriel), peace to him, taught the Messenger of Allah how to perform these prayers, both the recitations and the movements.

Before Muslims stand for prayer, they make wudhou' (washing), which includes physical acts but with clear meanings. Five times a day, washing a person's hands, mouth, nose, face, arms, ears, hair, and feet aims at cleanliness. This is the essence of the wudhou' requirement. Allah, praise to Him, has required these physical acts, not as meaningless rituals, but to lead to a deeper meaning, cleanliness. He wants humans to be clean and healthy.

The five Islamic prayers (at dawn, noon, mid-after-noon, sunset, and dusk), are all physical acts of standing, bowing, kneeling, prostrating, and sitting down on the ground. These prayer movements are performed in a certain way taught to Muslims by the Messenger of Allah, Muhammed, pbbuh. [2]

These movements, performed five times a day, constitute a physical daily exercise activity, contributing to the welfare and well-being of the human body. Bowing down (rukou), for example, benefits the back muscles and the backbone, which are stretched to relieve them from the pressure formed as a result of sitting or standing, for long hours every day. Prostration (sujood) provides the brain with bigger quantities of blood, with more oxygen and nutrients, than otherwise. It also relieves the brain from the electromagnetic waves, which we get from the air and from the electric and electronic devices we use throughout the day. Finally, sitting down allows thigh and leg muscles, ligaments, and tendons to be stretched, thus becoming more flexible and more healthy.

At the same time, each one of the prayer movements also involves spiritual aspects, represented by contemplation and thinking about the meaning of the verses of the Holy Quran and the words of praise to Allah, which are recited in each prayer movement. These acts of contemplation and thinking have tremendous benefits in terms of creating and maintaining internal mental peace for the worshipper. More important is that, the five prayers keep the worshippers in a continuous contact with their Creator, which influences their behavior positively, strengthens the human self, and contributes to its well-being.  

***

The five prayers are performed at specific times, which change daily in accordance with the continuous changes in the relationship between the Earth and the Sun. Many websites, such as islamiccity.com and islamicfinder.org provide schedules of prayer times.

The five prayers and their scheduled daily times, according to such prayer schedule of January 30, 2010, for example, are as follows:

 

 I. Prayer Times:

 

For example, the five prayers and their scheduled daily times, according to such prayer schedule for May 22, 2019, in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, are as follows: 

1. Al-Fajr (The Dawn) Prayer: Starts at 5:10 am but should be performed before the sun rise (at 6:30 am).

2. Al-Dhuhr (The Noon) Prayer: Starts at 1:33 pm.

3. Al-'Asr (The Afternoon) Prayer: Starts at 5:18 pm.

4. Al-Maghrib (The Sun Set) Prayer: Starts at 8:36 pm.

5. Al-'Isha (Late Night, Dusk) Prayer: Starts at 9:57 pm.

As a rule, prayers should be performed as early as possible after the start time. Delaying prayers should be avoided unless there is a necessity to do so.

 

The apostrophe in Al-'Asr and Al-'Isha as well as the underlines in Al-Dhur and Al-Maghrib indicate Arabic sounds which do not exist in English. [3]

 

 

II. Number of Prayer Units:

The Islamic prayers are composed of specific body movements accompanying recitations from the Holy Quran and words of praise to Allah (God).

A single unit of prayer (Rak'a, in Arabic) includes standing, bowing, prostration, and sitting on the floor.

The Islamic prayers include a number of required Rak'as (units), a minimum, as well as a number of recommended Raka'as, except for Al-'Asr Prayer. While there are 17 required Rak'as (units) in daily prayers,  recommended Raka'as are 13. The distribution of prayer units is as follows:

1. Al-Fajr (The Dawn) Prayer: 2 required Rak'as (units) and 2 recommended Rak'as (units), before.

2. Al-Dhuhr (The Noon) Prayer: 4 required Rak'as (units) and 4 recommended Rak'as (units), 2 before & 2 after.

3. Al-'Asr (The After Noon) Prayer: 4 required Rak'as (units) only.

4. Al-Maghrib (The Sun Set) Prayer: 3 required Rak'as (units) and 2 recommended Rak'as (units), after.

5. Al-'Isha (Late Night, Dusk) Prayer: 4 required Rak'as (units) and 5 recommended Rak'as (units), 2 before & 3 after.

 

 

III. Example: Performing Al-Fajr (Dawn) Prayer:

1. Cleanliness before prayers

A Muslim has to be clean by taking showers regularly, as well as after sexual intercourse.

Cleanliness is also performed before every prayer in the form of Wudu' (washing the external body organs with water), which includes washing and cleaning the hands, mouth, nose, face, arms, head hair, ears inside and back, and feet. Thus, the Creator, praise to Him, wants people to be healthy by cleaning themselves of dust, sweat, and microbes five times a day (There are many illustrative videos of how to make Wudu' in the internet).

If water is not available at all (which is a unique case), a Muslim performs Tayamum, which is an emulation of the Wudu' movements.

2. Facing Al-Qibla (Al-Ka'ba)

When they pray, Muslims must face Al-Qibla, which is Al-Ka'ba (The cubic-shaped House of Allah in Makkah). They should stand on a clean floor. For that purpose, they use a clean, small rug, if they are away from the masjid (mosque). Healthy people must stand for prayers. However, the sick can pray in whatever position suiting them, such as sitting or on their sides. 

It is essential for Muslims to make an effort, to find the exact direction of Al-Qibla, which can easily be found by using smart phones. Many websites also provide the Qibla direction for cities around the world, using a regular compass of 360 degrees. For example, it is 52 degrees north east, for Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

In addition, a Qibla compass of 40 zones can do this when the magnetic needle is made to point to a specific number referring to the location of performing prayers. Then, the arrow refers to the Qibla.

 

For example, number 34 refers to the southern US states of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, while number 33 refers to the eastern US states of Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, and D.C.  several other eastern states in the US are referred to as number 33 (for more information, see the map at: Finding Al-Ka'aba Direction). A third method is using the Sundial shadow, as explained and illustrated in the same source.

3. Adhan: Calling for a group prayer in a Mosque:

 

 Adhan (First calling for group prayer in a mosque):

Allahu akbar (God is Greater): 4 times.

Ash hadu alla ilaha illa Allah (I bear witness that there is no other god but Allah): Twice

Ash hadu anna Muhammedan rasoul ullah  (I bear witness that Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah): Twice

Hayie alas salah (Come to prayer): Twice

Hayie alal fala'h (Come to prosperity): Twice

Allahu akbar (God is Greater): Twice.

La ilaha illa Allah (There is no other god but Allah): Once

 

4. Iqama (Announcing the start of prayer):

 

Iqama (Calling for the immediate start of prayer)

Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar (God is Greater): Twice.

Ash hadu alla ilaha illa Allah (I bear witness that there is no other god but Allah): Once.

Ash hadu anna Muhammedan rasoul ullah (I bear witness that Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah): Once

Hayie alas salah (Come to prayer): once

Hayie alal fala'h (Come to prosperity): Once

Qad Qamates salah, qad qamates salah (The prayer has been stood for): Twice

Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar (God is Greater): Twice

La ilaha illa Allah (There is no other god but Allah): Once

 

5. Intention and Takbeer

As a Muslim worshipper stands for prayer, he/she has the intention to perform it, that's why it is unnecessary to say that he/she intends to pray. However, followers of Imam Al-Shafi'ie pronounce the intention. Then, they lift their hands up to the levels of their ears making the Takbeer, which is the start of prayers. Followers of other imams may neither pronounce the intention nor lift their hands up when they say the Takbeer.

The Takbeer is saying "Allahu Akbar," meaning "God is greater" (than anybody and anything).

6. Performing prayers

While standing up, facing Al-Qibla, with the right hand over the left hand, above the belly button, a Muslim starts prayer by reciting Al-Fati'ha (The Opening), in Arabic. This is the first Sura (Chapter) of the Holy Quran, which is recited as follows:

Al-Fati'ha

 The Opening (Chapter 1) of the Holy Quran

ٰ ﴿١

﴿٢ ٰ ﴿٣

﴿٤

﴿٥

﴿٦

﴿٧﴾  ( 1: 1-7).

Bissmilah irra'hman irra'heem

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful (1)

 

Al'hamdu lilahi rabbil alameen

 

Praise be to Allah , Lord of the Worlds (2)

 

Arra'hman arra'heem

 

The Beneficent, the Merciful (3)

 

Maliki yawm iddeen

 

Owner of the Day of Judgment (4)

 

Iyaka nabudu wa iyaka nasstaeen

 

You ( alone ) we worship, You (alone) we ask for help (5)

 

Ihdinas siratal musstaqeem

 

Guide us (to) the straight path (6)

 

Sirata ladheena anamta alayhim

 

Gharil maghdhoobi alayhim

 

Waladh dhaleen

 

The path of those whom You have blessed, not (the path of) those who earned Your anger, nor of those who went astray (7) (Al-Fati'ha, I: 1-7).

 

Ameen.

7. Reciting few verses after Al-Fati'ha, from any Sura (chapter) of the Holy Quran (See some of the short Suras below, which may be recited after Al-Fati'ha)

8. Rukou' (Bowing down)

A Muslim makes Rukou', making Takbeer first (saying Allahu Akbar), then bowing down with hands over the knees and the back is parallel to the floor. Then, he/she makes Tasbee'h, saying:

(3 )

Sub'hana rabiyal adheem (Praise to my Lord, the Great): 3 times while in Rukou (bowing)

9. Standing up for 'Hamd (Praising Allah)

After Rukou', a Muslim stands upright saying:

Sami'a Allahu liman 'hamidah  (Allah listens to whoever praises Him): Once

 

10. Sujoud (Prostration)

A Muslim makes sujoud, by making Takbeer first (saying Allahu Akbar, then going all the way down to the floor, prostrating himself/herself.

Eight body areas have to touch the floor in Sujoud (prostration). These are the forehead, nose, the two hand palms, the two knees, and the tiptoes of the two feet.

Once in prostration on the floor, a Muslim makes the Sujoud Tasbee'h, saying:

(3 )

Sub'hana rabiyal ala (Praise to my Lord, the Highest): 3 times in Sujoud (prostration)

Then, a worshipper lifts his/her head while sitting on the floor, then goes down to perform another Sujoud.

By performing the above ten steps, a Muslim completes one Rak'a, or a prayer unit.

Then, he/she stands up to perform the second Rak'a, repeating the above ten steps.

11. Al-Tashahud

After performing the Sujoud (prostration) of the second Rak'a (prayer unit), a Muslim worshipper sits down on the floor reciting Al-Tashahud (The Proclamation and Bear Witnessing), at the end of which he/she makes greetings to both directions, starting with the right, then the left.

Al-Tashahud (pronounced At Tashahud) is recited fully when a worshipper is praying two Rak'as only, such as in the case of Al-Fajr (Dawn) prayer. However, in the rest of the required prayers, which include more than two Rak'as, Al-Tashahud is recited in two ways. After the first two Rak'a, a worshipper recites only the first part of Al-Tashahud but he/she recites it fully at the end of the last Rak'a (last prayer unit).

 Al-Tashahud (pronounced as ata-Shahud): Proclamation and Bear Witnessing

(To be recited while sitting in prayer)

:

 

 

 

 

:

 

 

 

 

 

:

Transliteration of Al-Tashahud:

Part I:

At ta'hiyatu, al mubarakatu, wassala watu at tayibatu, lilah

Assalamu 'alayka ayuha anabiyu wa ra'hmatul lahi wa barakatuh

Assalamu 'alayna wa 'ala 'ibadil lahis sali'heen

Ash hadu alla ilaha illal lah

Wa ash hadu anna muhammadan rassoulul lah

***

Part II:

Allahumma salli 'ala muhammadin, wa 'ala aali muhammad

Kama salayta 'ala ibrahima, wa 'ala aali ibrahim

Wa barik 'ala muhammadin, wa 'ala aali muhammad

Kama barakta 'ala ibrahima, wa 'ala aali ibrahim

Fil 'aalamina

Innaka 'hameedun majeed

End Greetings:

Ending prayer with greetings to the right, then to the left saying:

Assalamu 'alaykum wa ra'hmatul lahi wabarakatuh

 

English translation:

Part I:

Blessed greetings and good prayers to Allah

Peace to you, O You Prophet, and mercy of Allah, and His blessings

Peace be upon us and upon the good worshippers of Allah

I bear witness that there is no other God but Allah (while raising the pointer finger of the right hand)

And I bear witness that Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah (while raising the pointer finger of the right hand)

Part II:

O Allah! Pray for Muhammed and for the family of Muhammed

As You prayed for Ibrahim (Abraham) and for the family of Ibrahim

And bless Muhammed and the family of Muhammed

As You blessed Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim

Amongst the worlds

You are the Praise-Worthy, You are the Glorious

End Greetings:

Then, the prayer is completed by saying the Islamic greetings to those on the right and to those on the left:

Peace of Allah be upon you, His mercy, and His blessings (to the right side)

Peace of Allah be upon you, His mercy, and His blessings (to the the left side)

End of Al-Fajr (Dawn) Prayer.

After Prayer, Tasbee'h is recommended, but not required:

:

(33 )

Tasbee'h (words of praise to God, to be said after prayers):

Sub'hana Allah  (Praise to Allah): 33 times

Al'hamdu lilah    (Thanks to Allah): 33 times

Allahu akbar   (Allah is Greater): 33 times

According to Hadith # 579, in Riyadh Al-Saliheen of Imam Al-Nawawi, worshippers may add a fourth Tasbee'h, saying:

La ilaha illal lah (There's no other god but Allah): 33 times

The number of times each Tasbee'h can be said is dependent on a person's time and circumstances, it can be more or less than the recommended number of 33 mentioned above.


 

Some Short Suras (Chapters of the Holy Quran), Which May Be Recited After Al-Fati'ha in Prayer

ۡ ٕ

ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡ ٱ


ۡ ٱ (١)

 ٱ ٱ (٢)

 ۡ ۡ ۡ ۡ (٣)

 ۡ  ۥ ڪ ۢ (٤)    ( 112: 1-4).

Surat Al-Ikhlas (Chapter 112):

Bismila hir ra'hma nir ra'heem

1. Qul hu allahu ahad

2. Allahus Samad

3. Lam yalid wa lam youlad

4. Wa lam yakun lahu kufwan ahad

 

Surat Al-Ikhlas (Translation):


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful


Say: Allah (is) He, (the) One; (1)

Allah (is) the Eternal; (2)

He did not beget (give birth) and He was not begotten (given birth to); (3)

And there has never been anyone equal to Him. (4)  (Al-Ikhlas, 112: 1-4).

ۡ

ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡ ٱ

ۡ ٱۡ (١)

  (٢)

(٣)

ٱٰٰ ٱۡ (٤)

(٥)   ( 113: 105).

Surat Al-Falaq (Chapter 113):

Bismila hir ra'hma nir raheem

Qul aa-oudhu birabil falaq (1)

Min sharri ma khalaq (2)

Wa min sharri ghasiqin idha waqab (3)

Wa min sharrin nafathati fil uqad (4)

Wa min sharri hasidin idha hasad (5)

***

Surat Al-Falaq (Translation):

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of the dawn (daybreak), (1)

From the evil done by those He created; (2)

And from the evil of night darkness as it overspreads; (3)

And from the evil of tied knots (of witchcraft or plots); (4)

And from the evil of the envious when he envies. (5) (Al-Falaq, 113: 1-5).

 

ۡ
ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡ ٱ

ۡ ٱ (١)

ٱ (٢)

ٰ ٱ (٣)

ٱۡۡ ٱۡ (٤)

ٱ ۡ ٱ (٥)

ٱۡ ٱ (٦)   ( 114: 1-6).

Surat Al-Nas, ponounced as an-nas (Chapter 114):

Bismila hir ra'hma nir ra'heem

1. Qul a-oudhu birabin nas

2. Malikin nas

3. Ilahin nas

4. Min sharril waswasil khannas

5. Alladhi yuwas wisu fi sudourin nas

6. Minal jinnati wannas

***

Surat Al-Nas, pronounced as an-nas (Translation):

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of the people (humankind), (1)

King of the people (humankind), (2)

God of the people (humankind), (3)

From the evil of the whisperer (the devil), the silent (who shuts up when people remember God by reciting these verses and others from the Holy Quran) (4)

Who whispers into the hearts of the people (5)

(Both) the Jinns and the humans (6)  (Al-Nas, 114: 1-6).

Note: The Jinn are invisible non-human creatures.

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Notes:

[1] See Chapter 23, "Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj."

[2] See Endnotes 3 and 4 of Chapter 2 for information about Gods commands of wudou and prayers.  

[3] Transliteration of Arabic sounds:

There are three Arabic vowels and their three strong forms (Tanween, i.e. adding "N"). The first is the Fat'ha, which maybe expressed in English by the sound / a /, with its strong form of / an /. The second is the Kassra, which maybe expressed by the sound / i /, with its strong form of / in /. The third Arabic vowel is the Dhamma, which maybe expressed by the sound / u /, with its strong form of / un /, as it is pronounced in "on."

Thus, following Arabic grammatical rules, the six vowel forms maybe illustrated in how a common noun, such as bab (door), maybe written and pronounced as baba, baban, babi, babin, babu, and babun.

 While all these six vowel forms are written in the Arabic text of the Holy Quran, not all of them are pronounced in recitation, particularly at the end of each verse. However, they maybe pronounced when several verses are continuously recited.

Arabic written words are mainly composed of consonants, vowels are added as symbols over or under a letter, as in the case of the text of the Holy Quran. However, in books and written media, only basic consonants and essential vowels are written as letters. No vowel symbols are added, as it is expected from an average educated Arabic speaker to know how to pronounce the words without vowel symbols.

Underlined letters in the above Quran transliteration

Some Arabic letters and sounds have no counterparts in the English alphabet and the English phonetic transcription. There are nine Arabic sounds which have no equivalence in the English alphabet. These are ( ). Throughout the chapters of this book, the closest English letters to these Arabic letters are underlined, in order to tell readers that these are pronounced differently in Arabic. Thus, the closest sounds expressing the Arabic letters in parentheses above, from right to left, are ( h, kh, s, dh, t, tdh, a, gh, q ). However, underlining them as ( h, kh, s, dh, t, tdh, a, gh, q ) conveys the message that these are different from the English sounds expressed by the letters of the English alphabet.

The Arabic letter and sound of Tha ( ) does not have an equivalent letter in English. Therefore, it is transliterated by the two underlined English letters "th" to indicate that this is just one Arabic letter and sound. This is the case of the sound pronounced at the beginning of the English word "three." 

Another examples is that of the Arabic letter and sound of Dhal ( ), which is transliterated by the two underlined English letters / dh / to indicate that this is just one Arabic letter and sound. This is the case of the sound pronounced at the beginning of the English word "that."

This method of underlining these letters is used in seven of the above-mention nine Arabic letters. However, for the other two Arabic letters expressed by the / h / and / a / sounds, an apostrophe before the letter is used, for each one of them to become / 'h / and / 'a / respectively. Using an apostrophe instead of underling a letter is for practical reasons only. First, these two letters are more frequently used than the other letters in the list. Second, it is easier to use the apostrophe on keyboards than adding underlining after writing.

As an example, an apostrophe is used before the English letter / a / to express the eighteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet / 'ayn /, as in the case of the transliteration of the Good Name of God, Al-'Azeez, the 16th on the list published in Chapter 16, "Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran." 

As an example, an apostrophe is used before the English letter / a / to express the eighteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet / 'ayn /, as in the case of the transliteration of the Good Name of God, Al-'Azeez, the tenth on the list published in Chapter 16, "Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran." 

An apostrophe is also used before the English letter / h / to express the sixth letter of the Arabic alphabet / 'ha /, as in the case of the transliteration of the Good Name of God, Al-A'had, which is the 79th on the same list.

The above usage of an apostrophe to help express the Arabic sound / 'a / may not be enough if the sound occurs at the end of a word, such as in the case of the Good Name of God, "Al-Samee'u," which is the 40th on the list. This Good Name of God is pronounced as "Al-Samee' " without conjugation. However, if the sound / 'a / occurs at the end of the word, the pronunciation may become distorted as / as-samee'a / instead of / as-samee ' /. As a solution, this author is using the conjugated form of the noun as a subject to become / as-samee'u /, the closest to the Arabic pronunciation.

========================================================================================================================

Illustrative Sources: 

There are many illustrations in the internet about how to perform the Islamic prayers. The following videos, illustrations, and animations are just examples of such illustrations:

Videos:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DoNPSEWn6aY

http://www.hilalplaza.com/islamic-pray-prayers-salat/index.html

http://www.islam.com/salat/salatfinal.html (animation with full texts in Arabic, pronunciation, and English translation).

Illustrations:

More sources for illustrations about how to perform prayers:

http://www.alsunna.org/salat/salat.htm

http://muslim-canada.org/salaat.html

http://www.ehow.com/how_5023330_perform-muslim-prayer.html

http://forum.moe.gov.om/~moeoman/vb/showthread.php?p=1667934

http://www.wikihow.com/Perform-Salah  

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About the Author and the Book:

* The author of this book has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters degree in Cultural Anthropology. He was born in Gaza, Palestine in 1369 Hijriya (1950) but he has been living in the United States since 1986.
 
The authentic Quran Arabic text is used as a reference for the translation of the meanings of the Quran verses, particularly from www.tanzil.net.

The works of the three renowned Islamic scholars Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, have been used throughout the chapters of this book, as these are the most credited interpretations of the Holy Quran, for their use of 'Hadith, companions' interpretations, and their thorough knowledge of the Arabic language.

  ( 61: 8).  

They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it (Al-Saff, 61: 8).

 

Opinions expressed in various sections are the sole responsibility of their authors and they may not represent ccun.org.

editor@ccun.org